In the 1700s, William Herschel, the most famous astronomer of his day, had the biggest telescope around and made discoveries that only those of its kind would give. William was the one who accidentally discovered a planet beyond Saturn, the first known human being ever to make such a discovery. All planets closer to the sun than what Herschel discovered are quite visible to the unaided eye at night, especially in the pre-dawn hours, as they are the brightest in the sky. So, no one person is credited with their discoveries, even cavemen saw these planets. This newly discovered planet was named after the Roman God, Uranus.
William's son was John Herschel, also an astronomer but was not quite as known as his father was in the field. One of the things he did in the early 1800s was the invention of colour photography (cyanotype photography). He made major contributions to putting an image of reality onto a device that captured that reality for others to share. It was arguably one of the most important inventions for the recording of scientific data there ever was.
These events from that era are worth mentioning because for the first time a portrait of the King did not require an artist. Artists were hired by wealthy people to paint their picture, and they wanted it to be accurate or possibly make them look a little better. All of a sudden in that period, art did not have to capture reality, it was no longer the obligation of the artist because we had photographs for that. That was when impressionism was born, where the artists were more inclined towards painting an image how they 'feel' it and not how they 'see' it.
Vincent van Gogh, a Dutch painter, in his pre-dawn hours made a painting which was one of its kind, ‘The Starry Night’ in 1889.
The Starry Night- Vincent van Gogh
We can see the foreground with a village, a church, a cypress tree and other things. But Vincent didn’t name the painting anything related to those elements. ‘The Starry Night’ is arguably the first painting of which the background is the subject of the painting, which is the night sky. It has elevated the cosmos to become a fair game to the artist.
In the case of artists, we don’t expect them to represent reality because we have technology for that, instead we expect them to take us to new places, their own interpretation of reality which a non-artist cannot perceive. The new place Van Gogh took us was not the sky as it is but the sky he felt. Art and science go hand in hand as both require and thrive on creativity. Artists like Beethovan, Da Vinci, Vincent, Chopin, Pablo Picasso, Mozart are as respected as Albert Einstein, Tesla, Richard Feynman, Stephan Hawking and various other artists and scientists. Both have made major contributions in their fileds and moreover, directly or indirectly insiperd people of each other's fields and also the whole world.